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Owen Davis
Owen Davis

Causal Agent


A number of different molecular markers have been implemented for Xam population studies. These include Restriction Fragment Length polymorphisms (RFLPs), Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs)[12, 14, 16]. Nevertheless, the most useful markers for population typing of this pathogen are AFLPs[8, 10, 16]. This is due to their high discriminatory power, when compared to other types of markers previously used, such as RFLPs[16]. However, traditional AFLPs are a time-consuming technique. In addition, it is difficult to standardize the protocols between laboratories because band patterns are not easily coded and the process can become subjective[17, 18]. Recently, other typing techniques have been developed to reduce the standardization time, as well as to reduce the time and cost required to obtain the results[17, 19]. One of these techniques is based on the sequencing of Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) loci, which detect polymorphisms in tandem repeats in a given genome and have been important to obtain informative markers[20, 21]. VNTRs were implemented more than a decade ago to characterize highly monomorphic human and animal pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis[22, 23], Bacillus anthracis[24] and Staphylococcus aureus[25]. More recently, VNTRs have been implemented to analyze the population genetics and diversity of plant pathogens such as Xylella fastidiosa[26], Xanthomonas citri pv. citri[27], Ralstonia solanacearum[28], and the bacterial rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola[29]. VNTRs have allowed to uncover variability that was not detected using other molecular markers[30, 31]. An additional advantage of VNTRs compared to other typing techniques is the reduction in costs, which is given by the following factors: first of all, a DNA extraction procedure is often not required because VNTRs can be easily amplified from bacterial colonies. Secondly, the amplification and detection does not require specialized equipment and reagents[21]. Finally, the reduction in the sequencing cost allows the analyses of a higher number of loci and samples, with at a reasonably low cost[17, 19]. All these advantages make VNTRs promising molecular markers to study populations of Xam when cost is a limiting factor and when the access to especialized laboratory equipment is restricted.




causal agent



Defenders of this theory include Thomas Reid and Roderick Chisholm. Reid believed that agents are the only beings who have a will, and considered having a will to be a necessary condition of being considered the cause of an event.[3]


Thomas Reid is credited as the founder of the theory of agent causation.[4] In Essays on the Active Powers of Man (1788), Reid described an agent as one who has "power over the determinations of his own will."[5] He held that agents are the only beings who have a will, and considered having a will to be a necessary condition of being considered the cause of an event.[3]


Agent causation has been adopted by both compatibilists and incompatibilists alike.[1] Defending a compatibilist interpretation, Ned Markosian proposed a situation in which a person's actions, caused by nothing other than their own agency, have shaped their moral character over their lifetime to compel them to always do the right thing.[6] Roderick Chisholm's incompatibilist view contends that a free action is an action that originates from within the agent alone, not as the result of a prior event.[7] While still subject to debate, agent causation is generally considered to align with incompatibilist theory.[1]


Libertarians have offered agent causation as a defense of their incompatibilist belief that only undetermined, uncaused actions are free.[8] One objection to this belief argues that an undetermined action is one that occurs at random, and freedom does not follow from random, "by chance" action.[9] Agent causation counter-proposes the idea that an action need not be classified as either determined or random, but rather can occur under an agent's control.[10]


Plasmopara viticola (P. viticola, Berk. & M. A. Curtis; Berl. & De Toni) causing grapevine downy mildew is one of the most damaging pathogens to viticulture worldwide. Since its recognition in the middle of nineteenth century, this disease has spread from America to Europe and then to all grapevine-growing countries, leading to significant economic losses due to the lack of efficient disease control. In 1885 copper was found to suppress many pathogens, and is still the most effective way to control downy mildews. During the twentieth century, contact and penetrating single-site fungicides have been developed for use against plant pathogens including downy mildews, but wide application has led to the appearance of pathogenic strains resistant to these treatments. Additionally, due to the negative environmental impact of chemical pesticides, the European Union restricted their use, triggering a rush to develop alternative tools such as resistant cultivars breeding, creation of new active ingredients, search for natural products and biocontrol agents that can be applied alone or in combination to kill the pathogen or mitigate its effect. This review summarizes data about the history, distribution, epidemiology, taxonomy, morphology, reproduction and infection mechanisms, symptoms, host-pathogen interactions, host resistance and control of the P. viticola, with a focus on sustainable methods, especially the use of biocontrol agents.


Significant losses can occur after harvest during storage and marketing of citrus fruit primarily due to green mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum, and secondarily by blue mold and sour rot caused by P. italicum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, respectively [1]. Among them, P. digitatum is the most economically devastating pathogen causing about 90 % of the total loss of postharvest citrus fruit [2]. Currently, the control of postharvest pathogens depends mainly on synthetic chemical application, but extensive use of synthetic chemical has caused the emergence of fungicide-resistant populations, therefore seeking natural and effective microbiocidal agents as alternatives has been immediate areas of research focus [3, 4].


A factor associated with the definitive onset of an illness (or other response, including an accident). Examples are bacteria and trauma. The relationship is more direct than in the case of a risk factor; in general, the ill health only occurs if the agent is a precursor.


Orner VA, Cantonwine EG, Wang XM, Abouelleil A, Bochicchio J, Nusbaum C, Culbreath AK, Abdo Z, Arias RS. 2015. Draft genome sequence of Cercospora arachidicola, causal agent of early leaf spot in peanuts. Genome Announc 3:6 (Nov/Dec 2015), e01281-15. doi:10.1128/genomeA.01281-15.


Cercospora arachidicola, causal agent of early leaf spot, is an economically important peanut pathogen. Lack of genetic information about this fungus prevents understanding the role that potentially diverse genotypes may have in peanut breeding programs. Here, we report for the first time a draft genome sequence of C. arachidicola.


In this manuscript Jose R. López et al., diagnosed the disease outbreak in winter in meagre in Huelva, Spain. Authors identified the etiological agent as Vibrio tapetiswhich caused high mortality in meagre which is recorded for the first time. This paper lacks different levels of diagnosis such as Level-I , II and III which is followed by OIE. Level I and Level II diagnosis includes gross clinical observation and histopathology which is an important diagnostic test for finding out the disease severity. Along with that this study lacks the study of viral, fungal and parasitic diseases associated with meagre. Please refer the paper Soares F., Roque A., Gavaia P.J. Review of the principal diseases affecting cultured meagre (Argyrosomus regius) Aquac. Res. 2018.


Authors claim that this is first evidence but previously it was reported by Cardenas, S. (2011). Cultivo de corvina (Argyrosomusregius) (p.96). Publicacion Madrid: Fundacion Observatorio Espanol de Acuicultura, Con- sejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientıficas. 96 p. ISBN: 978-84-00- 09291-7. Here, the Cardenas have tried but failed. Better to cite this paper in your paper. As they have detected the presence of Vibrio tapetis by Cardenas (2011) in meagre at IFAPA (Spain). However, an experimental infection made with this agent to confirm the potential of V. tapetis to affect meagre proved unsuccessful. 041b061a72


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